Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Fractal Geometry in African Villages: Lessons from an Outsider

In the 1960s, the Italian architecture firm Superstudio proposed the eradication of all architectural difference under a ubiquitous grid that they called a "Model for Total Urbanization." This is one of their posters.

"The exception proves the rule." How many times have we heard that without really understanding it? It was Cicero in ancient Rome who first said it, and what he implied was that exceptions presuppose the existence of a norm (to which they are the exception). We always look to outsiders, the exceptions to the rule, to help define ourselves as normal. Outsiders have always defined insiders. An old military adage says that you need a great enemy to create a great army. For ancient Greece, it was the Spartans and Macedonians who provided the "savage" exception that proved the superiority of the civilized Athenian polis, or city-state. For the West, a monstrous "other" occupying the rest of the world provided evidence of the dubious superiority of its own worldview.

The Western gridded "ideal city," as imagined by Fra Carnevale

In popular imagination, the exceptions to Western civilization still represent everything uncivilized, chaotic and savage in the world. When Edward Said and Claude Levi-Strauss came along in the '60s and pointed out that, hey, just because other cultures are different doesn't mean that they are devoid of their own internal logic and structure, we began to open our eyes to the fact that maybe, in the end, we had something to learn from "them." We'd gotten so blind to the veil we've fabricated as a frontier between city/country, order/chaos, insider/outsider, West/Rest, that we'd lost sight of the fact that ours is just one of many ways of being in the world, and that the veil is an illusion.

Somewhere in America

Case in point: the gridded and bordered modern city that sprang up in Europe towards the end of the Roman Empire - with its straight lines and corners retained by a circumscribing wall - quickly became the template for Western life. They were initially walled defensive positions (called Oppida), but the Romans soon became aware of their greater (in the long run) symbolic significance: The walled city is a locus of power. Those outside the walls were the medieval "wildmen," or savages beneath consideration. It established a clear - if fictional - boundary between the order of Man and the chaos of Nature.



The Universe is Euclidean, its rigid geometry tells us. The very linearity of modern cities came to represent the mythic Western advancement from barbarian to citizen, from chaos to order. The more squared-off the space, the more civilized its occupant. The barbarians lived outside the polis amid the chaos of nature, and "Nature," as Katherine Hepburn reminded Bogart in African Queen, "is what we are put in this world to rise above." Consequently, linear gridded space became the Western standard.

Hardly a coincidence that Star Trek automatons, "The Borg," occupy a cube.

By the 15th Century, Linear Perspective gained favor as a way of reifying what had already become a pervasively geometric worldview, literally set in stone by the Romans.  Perspective appealed to rich patrons because it backed up their notions of the hierarchy of social power (think majestic cathedrals with impossibly soaring trompe l'oeil ceilings inspiring awe among the plebs). Artists of Europe clamored to learn the rules of Linear Perspective as a way of codifying a "civilized" worldview, which flattered their clients by portraying them as higher-order citizens. Even if anyone had been aware of another way of seeing the world, they wouldn't have cared for it. West is best, and all that.

Every day I walk the streets of New York City, I'm aware that to get across town means zig-zagging at right angles across an artificially imposed grid that by its very inorganicness was designed to position the works of man as superior to those of nature.

What would an alternative even look like? We're so used to what we've got that it's hard to picture it, but we don't have to: When the fractal geometry of African villages was "discovered" by the West, it provided the exception that exposed the tenuousness of the norm we've come to accept. Certain villages in Africa (such as Tiébelé on the Ghanian border) have been organizing themselves for centuries according to mathematical principles that were only discovered in the West in the 1900s.

The classic Mandelbrot fractal set

Whereas the Western gridded polis denies Nature by proposing space as a system of stackable finite blocks, fractal architecture suggests an unfolding of space according to principles of organic growth. Each unit of fractal geometry relates intrinsically to its neighbor, regardless of scale. There is no frontier, no hierarchy of space as in the West.

Fractal sets are everywhere in Nature

Fractal architecture could never produce a Versailles, for example, that so self-consciously set itself apart from the populace that surrounded it. The "self-similarity" of fractal geometric modules would preclude it. Western architecture relies on the grid as an exclusionary device - you are either inside or outside the square - but fractal architecture seems to suggest that we all have the same potentiality.



I always worry that I'm writing too much in blog posts, that they're too long (because who the hell reads blog posts?), so I won't be getting into the weeds about what fractals are, except to say that they began as an outlier set of mathematical rules once considered to be useless oddities - Euclid's outsiders.

The fractal architecture of Ba-ila village, in Southern Zambia

The realization that whole communities live according to a spatial map that is entirely different to ours was an eye-opener. Watch this TED talk (and buy the book) by this fascinating mathematician who traveled Africa on a Fulbright scholarship, standing on rooftops and recording the fractal geometry he saw all around him. And next time you're sitting at a traffic light, imagine a world that has no right angles.

Ron Eglash mapped the fractal set at the heart of community life for Ba-ila villagers

Tiébelé, Ghana

93 comments:

  1. Fascinating Alan! ( as I type this in my rectangular box provided for text) Westerners definitely equate the grid with higher civilization.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Theresa! Now I know at least one person read it and I wasn't up until 1:30AM writing for nothing! ;)

      Delete
  2. Excellent! Fractals are fascinating and daunting but I appreciate them on an aesthetic level.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I read these posts, everyone, and love them. But I have a bone to pick ... It was the environment that presupposed the use of the linear grid in Europe as elsewhere. This article sneakily suggests that a more organic organizational style was not tried, stress tested and found wanting. The people who laid the groundwork for western civilization did not come to rely on hierarchal, granular organization because they lacked the ability to muse, dream or attend TED talks and contemplate African villages, but because they wanted to survive. Whatever its faults, the grid afforded our ancestors this privilege - the organic style could not withstand the stresses they encountered.
    Great post as always- awesome pics.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Firstly, thank you so much for reading all my rantings. And secondly, for taking the time to give me your thoughts.

      I should point out that I've never been one to let the facts get in the way of my point. Given, also, that I'm a layman rattling a hornet's nest and compressing the entire story of urbanization into a few paragraphs, then it's not surprising that there are some gaping holes.

      I totally agree with you that medieval Europe formed walled enclaves from a survival standpoint. Even before Julius Caesar attacked and wiped them out, they were threatened on all fronts by swarthy invaders like the Huns, moors etc. So they built walls to survive, with everything inside those walls a hastily cobbled mishmash (and not initially a grid at all).

      I guess I bent the truth to make the point that I believe there were other forces at work too. Perhaps not primarily, but they were there nonetheless. For example, the gates of Oppida were bigger and more imposing than required for pure defense, implying (to my amateur brain at least) that those who did the planning were aware that walled cities served a symbolic purpose as well as a practical one.

      Their primary purpose, as you say, was survival, but their secondary one was to gather citizens under a collective identity. Just as the encircling colonnades of St. Peter's basilica were deliberately designed to give the impression that the assembled throng were held within the protective and symbolic embrace of a unified ideal (Christianity), the imposing fortifications of early cities gave their citizens a sense of belonging and identity. Cities are no longer defensive in nature of course, but they still provide this symbolic role in addition to their practical one. [I'm generalizing enormously again, and I welcome your thoughts].

      I've always felt that the physical manifestation of any human expression (whether it's Art or City Planning) reveals something of our deepest wiring. I can't help feeling that ever since we huddled for survival around fires on the Savannah, divisions of Insider versus Outsider have been orchestrating our every action at a fundamental level.

      I should add that I don't believe that African communities living within "fractally designed" living spaces are any less likely to see divisions between Us and Them than the rest of us. As human beings I believe that figuring out who's on your side and who's not, and where the line lies between the two, is our most deeply ingrained survival tactic.

      Delete
  4. I should probably also add that I'm not advocating a kind of Social Darwinism; that there's an inevitability to excluding certain Others from our worldview. For my part, I think that while it's all but impossible to truly get inside someone else's head, it should not stop us trying.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hey Alan, I discovered your blog a couple of weeks ago and have been working my way through the archives. The one on reflections in water was the one that got me hooked. It's a treatise. There's no way a treatise can be three paragraphs long. I mean: keep the long posts coming.

    As for the schools of thought and imposing one world view on another as better - oh, well - we are only human and that is what we do, it is one of our major flaws or qualities. Maybe this is a subtext I read that isn't even there, but anyway. What comes to my mind on this subject is the book "Guns, Germs and Steel" by Jared Diamond. Whether you are talking about "cargo" or about the supremacy of grids over fractals I think the best explanation I heard is in there. Spoiler: chance, reinforced by feedback loops, some more chance.

    I live in Sao Paulo, by the way, an immense place that has a loose relationship with the grid. It was insane to navigate before GPS and maps on your phone. Organic is fine, but concrete organic with no skyline and curving streets that follow no rhyme nor reason, not so much. :)

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hi Leticia,

    Thank you for your comments.

    I think #Etype (in the blog comments) was making a similar point, that it was essentially trial-and-error that led to the adoption of our current model. I do agree. To a point. But I think that a defensive (or survival) strategy was not the only thing at play in the development and look of the urban landscape. If that had been the case, then cities would all have looked like the star-shaped fortress of Palmanova in Northern Italy.

    True, Palmanova has a central gathering point and wide avenues in common with many post-medieval towns, but that is where the similarity ends - at least with respect to the grid. Its avenues are radially designed for easy access to the defensive boundary. If survivalist trial-and-error thinking was at the root of city planning, then surely all cities would be star-shaped to some degree. [And I'm aware that one could argue that Paris, the first truly modern city under Hausmann, is star-shaped around the Etoile - which of course means star].

    What I'm trying to imply in the post is that yes, defensive reasoning was a major factor, but that it dovetailed with something deeper: the need for mankind to create artificial frontiers. These are mental constructs, that in the West are tied more to Imperial thinking inherited from the Greeks than they are to a purely practical impulse to protect city-dwellers from attack from without.

    I'm thinking for example of the American "Frontier Myth," a purely abstract concept of an Us versus Them boundary between civilization within and savagery without. This Frontier mythology has been widely cited as being the quintessential foundational story at the heart of modern American identity. This wasn't a defensive posture but it's polar opposite; an Imperial one that positioned Insiders as superior to Outsiders. And it was adopted wholesale from the Greeks.

    The poet Shelley said that "we are all Greeks," and we're it not for their worldview we would all be "savages and idolaters." Even the Romantics, though they sided with the "wildman" outsiders of the world, acceded to the same polar division of the world.

    You're correct that the subtext of my post is that it's a very human trait. I should re-state that it's not one I stand behind, as it's caused untold suffering (including what is perhaps the greatest atrocity in modern history, the genocide of the Native Americans).

    I just find it fascinating that this thinking is at the heart of everything we do.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Article on African Fractals:

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  37. beautiful
    kala jadu se hifazat aur najat k liye Dua Naade Ali sharif ka zikar karna aur iss Dua ko tehreer kar k apne ghar mein rakhna be had mujarrab hai . lahaza kala jadu ka tor karne k liye Dua Naade Ali sharif ka arabi taweez apne ghar mein zaroor rakhain

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  41. Naade Ali - Urdu Wazaif
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    ReplyDelete
  42. Bandish ka tor karne k liye Dua Naade Ali Sharif ka arabi taweez ap k liye be had powerful sabat ثابت ho gha . ye naqsh ghar me rakhtay رکھتے hi fard ka ghar jan , aulad , karobar , sehat aur kamyabi bandish ki jakar جکڑ se azad ho jati hai aur fard ko dobara دوبارہ se har kaam me kamyabi hasil hona shuro ho jati hai .
    Bandish ka tor

    fantastic and thanks for information

    ReplyDelete
  43. kala jadu ka tod kya hai ye har koe nahi janta aur sirf batain باتیں karne se aur kahania کہانیاں sonane سنانے se kala jadu ka tod kabhi کبھی nahi ho sakta . kala jadu ka tod karne k liye ap ko Allah ki gaibi madad hasil karna hi ho ghe aur Allah ki gaibi غیبی madad مدد hasil karne ka powerful zaryia زریعہ Dua Naade Ali sharif hai . Yani ager ap jadu tona se chutkara چھٹکارہ pana chahtay چاہتے hain tu ap ko Dua Nad e Ali shrif ka daman دامن thamna تھامنا hi ho gha . Naade Ali ki barkat se nasirf sakht se sakht jadu ka tor ho jata hai balkay fard ka ghar , jan aur aulad hameesha Allah ki hifazat me bhe rehtay hain .
    kala jadu ka tod

    amazing & ousum

    ReplyDelete
  44. rizq ki dua Nade Ali ki barkat se ap Allah ki bargha se behisab rizq , dolat , izat , karobar mein tarakki aur kamyabi hasil kar saktain hain . Dua Nade Ali Sharif ap k liye Dunia Mein Bhe Kamyabi hai aur Akhrat mein bhe .
    rizq ki dua
    ousum excilent information

    ReplyDelete
  45. shohar ki ghair aurton main dilchaspi ka tor karne k liye naqsh Naade Ali be had powerful hai . Naade Ali ki barkat se shohar k gird گرد aik hisar حصار ban jata hai jes ki bina par shohar na tu kisi ghair aurat k jadu ya mohabbat me mabtla مبتلاء ho pata hai aur na hi koe gair aurat asay اسے apne jal جال me phansa پھنساء sakti hai .
    shohar ki ghair aurton main dilchaspi ka tor
    wow

    ReplyDelete
  46. Rishte k liye wazifa Naade Ali sharif ko best aur be had powerful mana jata hai . agar ap rishte k na milne ملنے , rishta pakka na hone aur shadi شادی ki rukawat روکاوٹ ki wàja se parshan hain tu Naade Ali dua ka ye wazifa ap k liye bhut mujarrab مجرب hai. es wazifa ki barkat se 3 se 7 Roz k ander ap ko ap ki pasend ka rishta Allah k hukam حکم se muyaser hone k liye sabab paida ho jae gha .
    Rishte k liye wazifa
    ousum site

    ReplyDelete
  47. nafrat dalne ki dua Naade Ali ki barkat se ap apne husband k dil mein kisi bhe gair aurat ki nafrat sirf chand dino me paida kar saktay hain . Nazreen shohar ka ksi dusri aurat ke tarf mutawaja hona bhut aam baat hai aur AAJ Kal har aurat k Sath yehi masla dar peesh hai . Nazreen mard tawaja ko pasend karta aur jab tawja usy bahir se mil jaye TU Baki cheezu ko wo faramosh kar deta hai.
    nafrat dalne ki dua
    nice

    ReplyDelete
  48. Naseeb ki Dua Naade Ali sharif hai ye baat har koe janta hai , likan iss Dua ki barkat kyse hasil ki jati hain ye baat har koe nahi janta . iss artcal mein ham ap ko Dua Naade Ali sharif ka wird karne ka aik aysa tarika bata rahay hain jes ki barkat se ap apni kismat , naseeb aur muqaddar ko apni soch se bhe zaida acha kar saktay hain . ye amal ham ne ap ko youtube channel Nad e Ali ki video mein bata rahay hain .
    Naseeb ki Dua

    ReplyDelete
  49. kaly jadu ka tor karne k liye naqsh naad e ali be had powerful hai . es naqsh ki barkat se ap ki jan , aulad , ghar , karobar , job , sehat aur kamyabi kaly jadu aur nazar e bad se hameesha mehfoz rahain ghain .
    kaly jadu ka tor
    expencive artical & good

    ReplyDelete
  50. rishton ki bandish ka tor karne k liye surah ikhlas ka wazifa be had powerful mana jata hai . bandish ka tor , ache rishte aur jald shadi k liye ye wazifa kabhi khata nahi jata .
    rishton me bandish ka aa jana aam se baat hai , bandish khatanak خطرناک iss waqat hoti hai jab ye porani ho jae , bandish khud ba khud خود بخود bhe kisi beti par hawi ho sakti hai aur kisi k karne par bhe bandish kisi par lagh sakti hai .
    rishton ki bandish ka tor

    ReplyDelete
  51. Nabi Pak ka wazifa یا حی یا قیوم برحمتک استغیث hai aur Iss Dua mobarka ko ap Nabi Pak SAW apni mushkil aur pareshani me zikar farmaia kartay thaay . Iss Dua mobarka mein Allah ki 2 sifati Naam hain Ya Hayyu Ya Qayyum یا حی یا قیوم hai . Ya Hayyu Ya Qayyum یا حی یا قیوم ko isme Azam bhe kaha jata hai . Iss Dua mobarka ko nasirf Nabi Pak SAW khud zikr farmaia balkay Issi Dua mobarka ko Ummat k liye bhe taleem famaia gyia hai .
    Nabi Pak ka wazifa

    ReplyDelete
  52. Qarz ki Dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap Qarz se nasirf jald nijat hasil kar saktay hain balkay Dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap ko Allah ki bargha se ap ki soch se bhe zaida rizq aur dolat hasil ho jae ghe . Dua Naade Ali sharif ko khairo barkat ka khazana mana jata hai aur jes fard ko khairo barkat hasil ho jae asay sab kush hasil ho jata hai .
    qarz ki dua

    ReplyDelete
  53. Business profit k liye Dua Naade Ali sharif ka wazifa karna afzil mana jata hai . agr kisi bhai ya behan ka business na chal raha ho tu iss businees mein tarakkki aur kamyabi k liye Dua Naade Ali sharif ka wazifa sirf 7 din kar lain . Insha Allah ap ko ap k business mein ap ki sooch se bhe ziada profit hone laghay gha .
    Business Profit ki Dua
    really amazing

    ReplyDelete
  54. dar dur karne ki dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap har kisam k dar aur khuf se hameesha ہمیشہ mehfoz reh saktay hain . nazrin dar aik aysa ایساء masla مسلہ hai ju har fard mein kisi na kisi andaz انداز mein mojood hai . koe fard bohat zaida darta hai aur koe kam . Dar ki waja nafsiyati نفسیاتی bhe ho sakti hai aur rohani bhe .
    Dar Dur Karne ki Dua
    really amazing good

    ReplyDelete
  55. bacho ko sulane ki dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap apnay bache k raat ko na sone ki adat ko khatam kar saktay hain . ye Dua mobarka un tamam walidan والدین ke parshani ka hal hai jo bacho k na sone سونے ke waja se fikrmand فکرمند hain.
    bacho ko sulane ki dua
    really very good

    ReplyDelete
  56. Saas bahu ki har baat many iss k liye aur iss ka dil naram karne k liye Dua Naade Ali sharif ka wazifa behad powerful hai . Iss Dua Mobarka ki barkat se nasirf ap ki saas ka dil apni bahu k liye na sirf naram ho jae gha balkay Saas Bahu k sath iss k maa jaisa salook bhe hameesha rakhay ghe .
    saas bahu ki har baat many wazifa
    really ousum

    ReplyDelete
  57. shohar se paise lene ka wazifa Naade Ali sharif hai . agr kisi behan ko iss ka shohar ghar chalane k liye ya zati jaib kharch na deta ho tu wo behan dua Naade Ali sharif ka ye asan wazifa kar le . InshaAllah Iss wazifa ki barkat se Allah ki zaat iss behan k shohar k dil mein iss ki mohabbat paid farma dain ghay aur wo shohar apni biwi ko Pocket Money bhe de gha aur iss ki har zarorat bhe pora karta rahay gha .
    shohar se paise lene ka wazifa
    really ousum

    ReplyDelete
  58. Tension kisi bhe pareshani ko apne oper swar karne ka nam hai . tension ka ilaj waqat par hona zarori hai aur agr aysa na ho tu tension apne sath beshumar zehni aur jesmani Bimarian frad par hawai kar deti hai jes se baz Oqaat fard ko tamam zindgi shifa nahi milti .
    Tension Ka rohani ilaj
    really ousum

    ReplyDelete
  59. Jumma k Din ka Wazifa rizq se mala mal hone k liye be had powerful hai . jumma k din k bohat se wazaif bozurghon ne byian farmae hain . en me asan tareen wazifa surah khaf ka hai . es wazifa ko ju fard bhe apni zindaghi ka mamool bana leta hai tu Allah ki zaat bohat jald es fard ko rizq se mala mal farma detain hain .
    jumma k din ka wazifa
    so good

    ReplyDelete
  60. Husband Depression mein agr ho tu iss ka Rohani ilaj Dua Naade Ali sharif mein hai . Dua Naade Ali ka wazifa sirf 7 din kar lain Insha Allah husband ko depression , gham aur har kisam ki pareshani se hameesha k liye nijat mil jae ghe.
    Husband Depression me ho tu Rohani ilaj
    so good

    ReplyDelete
  61. shadi ki bandish ki pehchan kaise karen iss k liye bozurghon ne bohat se rohani amal byian kyia hain , iss post mein ham ap ko shadi ki bandish ki pehchan karne k liye wo rohani amal batain gay ju sab se asan hai aur iss amal ki barkat se ap sirf 1 raat mein shadi ki bandish hone ya na hone k hawaly se wazia ashara hasil ho jae gha .
    shadi ki bandish ki pehchan kaise karen
    so good

    ReplyDelete
  62. Pait dard ki dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap pait dard aur pait se related kisi bhe dard se fori nijat hasil kar saktay hain . nazrin pait dard ka masla kisi bhe fard ko ho sakta hai aur ye problem male se zaida female ko lahaq hoti hai .
    Pait Dard Ki Dua
    good

    ReplyDelete
  63. bacho ko sulane ki dua Naade Ali sharif ki barkat se ap apnay bache k raat ko na sone ki adat ko khatam kar saktay hain . ye Dua mobarka un tamam walidan والدین ke parshani ka hal hai jo bacho k na sone سونے ke waja se fikrmand فکرمند hain.
    bacho ko sulane ki dua

    ReplyDelete
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  65. نادعلی | Naade Ali sharif ko google me Nade Ali ,Nad e Ali ,Naade Ali ,Nady Ali,Nadeali ,Nada ali , Naday Ali , Naad e Ali ,Nadia ali aur Nad Ali likh kar serch kyia jata hai aur sab k sab serch result Naade Ali yani نادعلی hi show hotay Hain ju k khas Rohani munajat مناجات hain jen ka nazool ghazwa khyber غزوہ خیبر k doran howa . Inn Rohani munajat mein Hazrat Mola Ali ki shan byian بیان hai .
    نادعلی | Nade Ali
    very great

    ReplyDelete
  66. best taweez for all problems yani ap ki har problam k liye best taweez Naade Ali hai . Iss khas Taweez ki barkat fori zahar ho kar fard ki har pareshani ka fori tor kar deti hai . ye Taweez chukay چونکہ aarabi hai iss liye iss ka kisi kisam ka side effects سائڈ ایفیکٹ nahi .
    best taweez for all problems
    great

    ReplyDelete
  67. dukan ki khairo barkat ka wazifa 1st kalma ki barkat se ap apni dukan ki aamdani mein apni sooch se bhe zaida Insha Allah Izafa Kar saktain hain . ye wazifa rizq mein barkat , karobar me tarakki ke liye aur dolat hasil karne k liye bhe powerful mana jata hai . agr kisi waja se ap ki karobar na chal rahi ho tu iss ki waja nazre bad ho sakti hai Qk dukan par loghon ka aana jana tu rehta hai , lahaza shop ko kisi bhe fard ki nazr lagh sakti hai .
    dukan ki khairo barkat
    great

    ReplyDelete
  68. gharelu pareshani ka wazifa إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ be had powerful aur mujarrab مجرب hai . ye dua mobarka surah baqarah ayat 54 k akhar me mojood hai .
    gharelu pareshani ka wazifa
    great

    ReplyDelete
  69. husband controlling k liye ju wazifa be had powerful mana jata hai wo Isme Azam Allah Hu samad ka hai . Isme Azam Allah hu Samad be had powerful kalimat کلمات hain . kaha jata hai k es Isme Azam ki barkat se Husband k dil se har gair غیر ki mohabbat chand second me khatam ختم ho jati hai aur es k baad es k dil me iss ki biwi ki mohabbat hameesha k liye basera بسیرہ kar leti hai .
    wazifa for husband controlling
    great

    ReplyDelete
  70. Insha Allah beta hi paida hoga ap ne sirf Dua Naade Ali Panjatni پنجتنی apne ghalay گلے me ya apnay ghar me rakh رکھ lay . Insha Allah Iss Dua Naade Ali ki barkat se Allah ki zaat ap ko jaldi aulad ki nemat نعمت se sarfraz سرفراز farma dain ghay . aulad k liye dua Naade Ali sharif ka wazifa karna ya iss dua ko apne pas rakhna karamati کراماتی asrat اثرات ki hamal حامل hai .
    Insha Allah beta hi paida hoga
    great

    ReplyDelete
  71. zalim shohar ko rahe rast pr lana har shadi shuda behan k bas ki baat nahi likan iss silsila me Naqsh Naade Ali sharif ki barkay ka koe inkaar bhe nahi kar sakta .
    zalim shohar ko rahe rast pr lana
    great

    ReplyDelete
  72. shohar ki zuban bandi ka taweez Naade Ali Sharif be had powerful hai . Ye Khas Naqsh sirf apne ghar mein rakhne se bad zuban بد زبان shohar apni biwi ki har kisi k samne سامنے beizzati بے عزتی karne se hameesha k liye baz باز aa jae gha .
    shohar ki zuban bandi ka taweez
    great

    ReplyDelete
  73. saas ki zuban bandi ka taweez Dua Naade Ali Sharif ka arabi naqsh hai . agr kisi shadi shuda behan ki saas kisi galat fehmi ki bina par apni bahu بہو se sakhat naraz ho aur wo bilawaja بلاوجہ hi apni bahu par ilzam الزام bhe laghati لگاتی ho aur har kisi k samne es ko ruswa رسواء bhe karti ho tu aysi ایسی sorat me ap saas ki zuban bandi ka taweez yani Dua Naade Ali Sharif ka arabi naqsh amna behan se mangwa منگواء kar sirf apne ghar me pak jagha par rakh dain .
    saas ki zuban bandi ka taweez
    great

    ReplyDelete
  74. rajab ki dua Naade Ali ap ki har mushkil ki asani aur har hajat ki takmeel hai . iss wazifa ko kam az kam 3 din kar lain . Insha Allah rajab k ikhtitam hone se pehlay pehlay ap ko ap ki har jayz hajat hasil ho jae ghe .
    rajab ki dua
    great

    ReplyDelete
  75. rajab moon wazifa Naade Ali ap ki zindaghi bhar ki mushkilat ka 1 rohani hal hai . iss wazifa ko 1 din rajab ka chand dekhne k baad kyia jata hai . rajab moon wazifa zindagi me sirf 1 bar karne se Allah ki zaat ap ko ap ki zindagi bhar ki hajat ata farma detay hain .
    rajab moon 2022 wazifa
    great

    ReplyDelete
  76. 13 Rajab ki tasbeeh Nad e Ali
    Nazreen 13 Rajab ki tasbeeh Nad e Ali Shareef se ap apni Zindagi mein kamyabi LA sakhty Hain aur apni Kismat ko Allah k hukam se acha bana sakty Hain. Agar ap bhut ziada izzat , kamyabi aur Khushi chahty hain.
    13 Rajab ki tasbeeh Nad e Ali
    nice

    ReplyDelete
  77. mahe Shaban ka wazifa Naade Ali se ap apni 70000 se bhe zaida Hajat Allah ki bargha se hasil kar saktay hain . Mahe Shaban mein khas rohaniat ka Dunia me zahar hoti hai .
    shaban ka wazifa
    great

    ReplyDelete
  78. personality test k zaryia ap apni shadi , rishta , shohar , aulad , job , kamyabi aur apne har sawal ka jawab free mein fori hasil kar saktay hain . ham ne tamam rohani aloom ko yakja kar k ap k liye 1 aysi app banai hai jes se apni zaindagi mei nakami ki waja jan saktay hain .
    personality test
    great

    ReplyDelete
  79. 13 rahjab ka wazifa ap ki zindagi aur muqaddar ko Allah k hukam se badal sakta hai .
    Shabe Barat ki dua
    great

    ReplyDelete
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